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Pedalling motion means motorists will spot cyclists in hi-vis legwear earlier, say researchers

Motorists approaching a cyclist from behind will spot them earlier if the rider is wearing high visibility clothing on their lower rather than upper body, according to a new study, with researchers recommending riders wear fluorescent leggings.

The findings were presented in a paper given at the annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society in Austin, Texas last month.

Highlighting previous research that concluded that body movement – or “biomotion” – made vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists more conspicuous to motorists, the study sought to establish whether similar results could be found during daylight hours.

> High-vis works says Danish study

> Study says cyclists should make themselves seen - but reflective clothing, not hi-vis, is the answer 

The study involved 186 people being driven along a road by a researcher and asked to press a button on a keypad each time they identified a person “on or with” a bicycle, whether “stopped or moving” and who was “in or near the roadway.”

Approximately seven minutes into the trip, they would pass someone riding on a stationary bike on the pavement to the right of the roadway, with the rider dressed in one of four clothing configurations – black jersey and fluorescent yellow leggings, yellow jersey with black leggings, and all-yellow or all-black outfits.

They said that “a fluorescent yellow jersey did not significantly improve the cyclist’s conspicuity relative to a black jersey.

“However, when the cyclist paired the fluorescent jersey with fluorescent yellow leggings, participants responded from a distance 3.3x farther than an identical outfit with black leggings.”

> 12 of the best reflective garments and accessories to help keep you visible after dark

In conclusion, the researchers said: “The finding that fluorescent yellow leggings can provide a dramatic enhancement to bicyclist conspicuity is, we believe, a consequence of highlighting the bicyclist’s pedalling motion.

“The rhythmic up-down movements of a cyclist’s lower legs uniquely specify a pedalling motion that is visually distinct from, for example, a pedestrian walking or jogging. Further, considerable research has identified that highlighting a cyclist’s biological motion can provide powerful conspicuity enhancements.

“Thus fluorescent leggings can offer a powerful and low-tech tool for enhancing bicyclists’ daytime conspicuity,” they added.

Other studies have reached different conclusions, however. One, conducted by researchers at Brunel University and the University of Bristol, concluded that no matter how visible bike riders tried to make themselves to motorists, between 1 and 2 per cent of drivers would give them insufficient room when overtaking.

> High vis clothing doesn't make cars pass you more safely, says new study

According to Rule 59 of the Highway Code, cyclists should wear “light-coloured or fluorescent clothing which helps other road users to see you in daylight and poor light” and “reflective clothing and/or accessories (belt, arm or ankle bands) in the dark.”

 

Simon has been news editor at road.cc since 2009, reporting on 10 editions and counting of pro cycling’s biggest races such as the Tour de France, stories on issues including infrastructure and campaigning, and interviewing some of the biggest names in cycling. A law and languages graduate, published translator and former retail analyst, his background has proved invaluable in reporting on issues as diverse as cycling-related court cases, anti-doping investigations, and the bike industry. He splits his time between London and Cambridge, and loves taking his miniature schnauzer Elodie on adventures in the basket of her Elephant Bike.