Are panniers the best way to carry stuff on your bike? We take a not-at-all-biased look at your options in bags that hook on your bike.
Folks who choose to carry stuff in panniers tend to be a bit fanatical about it. They point to the advantages of panniers over shoulder bags and backpacks: no sweaty back, larger capacity, far more comfortable, easier to waterproof and did we mention you don’t get a sweaty back?
I’ve got to admit to a strong preference for panniers. Sure, I’ll grab a backpack or courier bag if I’m just nipping into town for the evening as an easy way of carrying the stuff I don’t want to leave on the bike, but to carry more than a couple of light items, it’s panniers every time.
Another big advantage of panniers is that they can only be used on the bike, which means a) I know where they are (on my bike) and b) neither of the teenagers is going to go to the hassle of borrowing them so they’ll stay there.
But I’ll try not to be too evangelical here.
We're just looking at traditional racks and panniers here. For a look at the new generation of 'bikepacking' bags see our article 12 of the best bikepacking bags — luggage for lightweight adventures
Panniers hang at the side of your bike, on purpose made racks. They can fit in three main locations: next to the rear wheel; by the top of the front wheel; and next to the front wheel hub.
The rear location is the traditional place for large panniers, though there’s no obvious reason why – perhaps early cyclists were just aping the way horses are loaded behind the rider.
For this position to work well, your bike needs fairly long chainstays so that the panniers can be over the rear wheel contact point and still leave heel clearance. That means carrying rear panniers on a typical road racing bike isn’t ideal. Not only will a light frame be flexible with a load at the back, but assuming you can bodge a rack on in the first place (see ‘What if my bike doesn’t have eyelets’, below), the bags will be so far back they’ll tend to sway and wobble.
However, touring bikes have longer chainstays and are usually stiffer so this is a good place for panniers on a touring bike; many such bikes come with a rear rack as part of the package.
If you need even more capacity, for a long tour or camping trip, then you’ll want to put panniers on the fork as well. You can get racks that put them up high, at the same level as rear racks, or down low by the wheel hub.
A high front rack is good if you want to carry light items on top of the rack as well. It’s a good place for a sleeping mat, for example. Typically, front panniers for high-position racks are smaller than rear panniers.
Back in the 1970s Jim Blackburn (founder of Blackburn Design) and Jim Gentes (who later founded helmet-maker Giro) did some experiments with luggage placement on bikes. They found that the best handling was achieved with a load spread between a low front rack and a conventional rear rack. Handlebar bags were very popular among cycle tourists at the time, but Blackburn and Gentes found they should only be very lightly loaded; too much weight in a bar bag adversely affects the handling.
It turns out Blackburn and Gentes could have gone further. In 1984 adventurer Nick Sanders set a the first Guinness-ratified round the world cycling record, carrying his gear in just a pair of 45-litre panniers on a low-rider rack. I ran a similar set up for a while and they coped fine with a few days’ shopping as well as touring.
Racks are usually made from steel or aluminium rod or tubing. Steel rod racks are the cheapest, but are usually only found on very cheap round-town bikes. They tend to be, frankly, rubbish: flimsy, rattly and flexible. Aluminium rod is next up and is light and inexpensive. Racks made from aluminium rod start from about £10 and, if designed right, can be stiff enough for moderate loads.
Steel and aluminium tubing is where it’s at if you want to carry more substantial loads. Aluminium tubing racks start from about £20, steel from around £50.
If you want the ultimate combination of strength and light weight, German rack maker Tubus offers a titanium rear rack, the Logo Titan, for a bargain £185, though you can find it cheaper on line.
As important as the material is that the rack have some sort of triangulation to help make it laterally stiff. A rack that’s a simple rectangle when looked at from behind will be more flexible than one that has struts that slope inward from the bottom. Large-diameter tubing also increases stiffness, just as it does with bikes, though there are practical limits to how large rack tubing can get; you still have to be able to fit a pannier and hooks are usually a centimetre or so across.
Racks often have extra features as well as the ability to hang a pannier. Some rear racks have mounts at the back for a light, which is handy if you’re likely to stack things on top of the rack and so obscure a light on your seat post.
What if my bike doesn’t have eyelets?
Ideally, any bike you’re going to use to carry panniers will have eyelets on the frame to bolt on a rack or racks. The popularity of gravel/adventure bikes and the rise of ‘soft’ cyclocross bikes means more and more bikes do have eyelets, though often only on the dropouts.
However, many still don’t. Fortunately there are plenty of options if you want to put a rack on a bike that’s not intended for one.
Several manufacturers make racks that will fit a bike with no eyelets. Thule’s Pack n Pedal rack straps on to the seatstays and will fit just about any bike that has a few inches of space there, including suspension mountain bikes. Pack n Pedal racks are intended for use with Thule’s matching panniers which have a dedicated hook attachment and are held against the rack by magnets. They’re very nicely made, but the steel plate for the magnets to grab makes them heavy. Thule makes a side frame for the Pack n Pedal racks that allows the use of any panniers.
Other manufacturers such as Tubus and Old Man Mountain also make racks that will fit bikes without eyelets, and accessory kits that can be used to fit other racks to such bikes.
If your bike has mudguard eyelets but none on the seatstays, a simple and elegant solution is to replace the seat clamp with one that’s threaded for rack attachments.
You can also get racks that fit on the seatpost, though these should only be used with very light loads as they tend to sway.
The range of panniers out there is truly vast. There are small panniers for commuting and front rack use; big ones that’ll take everything but the kitchen sink for long-distance touring; shopping panniers designed to be easily carried off the bike; commuter panniers that’ll easily take A4 documents or a laptop; convertible panniers that turn into rucksacks and lots more.
Given the range of choices, you need to think about what you’ll be using the bags for. If the answer is ‘everything’ — shopping, commuting, touring — then large rear panniers are the way to go. You’ll probably only need one of them for the office run, but there will be times when you’ll be grateful for the capacity of a pair.
If your needs are more specific, then take a look at purpose-made panniers. A briefcase pannier, for example, will do a better job of carrying a laptop and A4 files than the less-shaped and unpadded space of a general-purpose pannier, unless you don’t mind bent corners on your files.
Carrying the bag a further than the few metres from the bike to the office? There are panniers that have lurking shoulder straps to make toting gear on foot easier. They don’t tend to work brilliantly as backpacks — you wouldn’t want to go on a day hike with one — but they’re plenty good enough round town.
The extent to which a pannier protects its contents varies. They’re generally better than the days when you much had to use thick plastic bags to line all panniers, but the level of waterproofing still varies.
At the ‘seriously waterproof’ end of the scale one manufacturer leads the way: Ortleib. This German bag-maker started out by making panniers from truck tarpaulin after Hartmut Ortlieb was inspired to use the material when his gear got wet on a cycling tour in the south of England in 1981.
Ortlieb soon added welded seams and a roll-top closure to his original idea and a waterproof legend was born.
Thanks to Ortlieb’s influence other pannier makers have raised their game. Even the most traditional of British pannier makers, Carradice, has added welded PVC panniers and other bags to its range, alongside its classic Super C panniers in cotton duck fabric. Cotton duck is also waterproof but needs more careful handling to keep it that way.
Modern panniers are securely attached to the rack by mechanisms that lock closed so the hooks can’t bounce off the rail. For anyone who remembers watching a bag roll down the road after bouncing off a rack on a steep descent, these systems are a blessing.
Many pannier makers use attachments from a third party like German fixing maker Rixen & Kaul. Rixen & Kaul’s Klickfix designs started with a handlebar bag mount and now include ways of fixing almost anything you can imagine to your bike. R&K also makes a wide range of its own bags.
Ortleib has its own systems that either grab a standard rack or include attachments that amount on the rack. This QL family of mounts all include a grab handle that opens the hooks so you can lift them off one-handed. QL1, QL2 and QL2.1 will fit any rack, while QL3 needs a custom mount but sits the bags further down on the rack for a lower centre of gravity and better stability.
This low-rider rack is essentially a copy of Jim Blackburn's design from the 1980s, which Blackburn Design no longer makes. It bolts on to the mudguard eyes on the fork and is held at the top by a clamp round the fork leg.
The design works well if you have a fairly simple hook-on pannier, but the stiffening plate gets in the way of hooks that close all the way round the bar. It's nothing you can't fix with judicial Dremelling, but you might want to get a more modern rack and avoid the hassle.
This minimal rack lacks a top platform, but many people find they never put anything on there anyway, so why not do without it? There's room between the 10mm hollow aluminium struts for 32mm tyres or 28mm tyres and mudguards, and it'll take up to 25kg.
Velocity users like its sleek looks too, though to preserve them, as with most coated racks, protective tape on the contact points is a good idea.
The alloy version of Tortec’s beefy stainless steel Epic rack is a sensible weight, very stiff and, if you shop around, excellent value for money. Made from 6061 rod and available in a choice of anodised silver or black powder coated finishes, it's a subtly clever set up designed to fit a full range of frame sizes, shapes and types.
Like many modern rear racks it has an extra set of top bars so you can carry your panniers a bit lower and so drop the centre of gravity of the whole lot. Its best feature is that the Epic Alloy's lateral stiffness is vastly superior to similarly priced competition, especially when loads sneak past the twenty kilo mark.
Madison's Summit heavy duty rack is a quality item at a sensible price. Madison claim that the wide base offers greater stability and while that may be a bit of marketing spin, the rack certainly does feel very solid.
The most unusual feature of the Summit is the way the struts attach to the frame. Rather than a single hole either side through which a bolt screws into the dropout eyelet, the Summit comes with a separate footplate on to which the strut bolts. In fact you get a choice of two different footplates to allow for varying frame designs.
Each strut attaches with a pair of rather long nuts and bolts. Again Madison make a bold claim, that this design "dramatically increases strength and lifespan" and while they may be right, it can also make the rack more awkward to fit with the long bolts potentially fouling mudguard stays. It's not the end of the world, but was the cause of a few early medieval oaths during the fitting process.
The Blackburn Central Rear Rack is a no-frills choice that should fit just about any bike imaginable. With a 20kg weight limit it's good for touring as well as commuting, and with a lifetime warranty it should outlive you.
It has stepped-put lower attachments to clear disc brakes and a wide range of nuts, bolts and clamps so it should fit any imaginable seatstay design.
In use we had no rattles, shifting or other issues. The Loctited bolts held fast, as you'd expect, and apart from a bit of paint loss where the panniers mount it performed perfectly.
Overall, this is a utilitarian workhorse of a rack that's pretty much infinitely flexible in installation, and with a lifetime warranty should be one of the things you hand on to your children.
Tubus' Tara low rider has been tweaked and improved over the last 18 years, making it a thoroughly mature design. It's made in Germany from 10mm steel tubing and puts the bags nice and low for stable handling.
It'll take up to 15kg, and Tubus offers clamps for bikes that don't have fittings on the fork. Tubus says it'll fit most forks, though the clamps should not be used with carbon forks.
The Tubus Disco is a rear pannier rack for a kind of bike that isn't designed to take one: a cyclocross, mountain or (these days) road bike with a disc brake caliper attached to the seat-stay and no rack eyelets at the dropouts.
In a sense, it's a solution for the cyclist who bought the wrong bike. But it's easy to be wise in hindsight, and this sturdy German rack lets you carry luggage on a bike you didn't anticipate equipping with panniers.
It's made from chromoly steel tubes. That means it's stiff and strong for its weight. It's rated to carry 20kg, as much as many sturdier-looking aluminium racks. Steel is easier to weld if you do break it on the way to Timbuktu or wherever, although for the vast majority of owners that will be only a hypothetical advantage.
Instead of bolting to eyelets on the frame or fork, Thule's Pack 'n Pedal Tour rack mounts on your bike with ratchet straps. That makes it one of a few options if you want to carry bags on a frame with no rack mounts, and while it works well, it's a bit heavy and expensive.
The Cargo Classic rack from Tubus is the company's original rack. It's a solid rack that is really easy to fit and is compatible with most frames on the market.
If you want a rack that can take a heavy load, the Cargo is rated up to a whopping 40kg, plenty for a couple of stuffed panniers and a tent on top. Despite its load capacity, it's impressively light.
Fitting to the frame couldn't be any easier. The two adjustable struts are easy to install and they provide a wide range of adjustment so you can get the rack perfectly set up in the right position. All bolts are supplied.
Riding with a pair of Ortlieb panniers mounted to the rack showed there to be no clearance issues. Even with heavily loaded bags, the rack is impressively sturdy. It doesn't budge over rough roads and cheerfully handles you heading off-road too.
No rack mounts? Old Man Mountain was the pioneer of more-or-less conventional racks that will fit anything, especially bikes with disc brakes. The Sherpa will fit any frame, supporting itself by the included extra-long quick release skewer.
Made in the USA from aluminium tubing, it's rated at 18kg. It's big brother, the Pioneer, will haul almost twice that if you need to take along the kitchen sink. Old Man Mountain racks aren't cheap, but they're very well-regarded.
Lomo's Dry Pannier doesn't disappoint: it's a very simple bag that will keep whatever you put in it dry. And it fits really easily to your bike too.
Made from welded marine-grade waterproof PVC, the Dry Pannier feels thick and durable. If you did have a small crash or drop the bag, it really isn't going to do it much damage. The PVC also means it's really easy to clean road grime off – a quick wipe brings the bag up like new. A roll-top closure keeps out the wet.
For thirty quid you don't get a fancy-dan attachment system, but the thick hooks are sturdy and work fine on the road.
This single pannier gives you one big compartment for shopping and is comfortably carried by its handle or shoulder strap because the hooks fold away into the back when not needed.
It works best with Thule's Pack n Pedal racks, but it'll fit almost any rack if you fit Thule's clamp-on magnet that grabs the steel plate inside the bag and stops it from swaying.
Thule makes a whole range of panniers with this stow-away hook system, but this is perhaps the best application of the idea.
The Upso Potters pannier is a striking-looking thing which should last for years and years. It does an excellent job of keeping its cargo dry and secured to the bike.
Upso makes a range of bags from mostly recycled materials, most prominently the tarpaulins that go on the sides of trucks. It also uses things like fire-hoses and seatbelts where possible.
Take a peek inside this pannier and you'll see a label sewn in, saying it was handmade by Sue. That's a familiar touch for anyone who has a Carradice bag, and in fact Upso is a sub-brand run by the folk at Carradice. As with Carradice products, the bags are handmade in England and they do a cracking job. The design is relatively simple, without much in the way of bells, whistles or indeed pockets, but it's all neatly finished.
This is a made-in-Britain pannier that does what it says it will and is built to last.
Carradice luggage has a well deserved reputation among mile-eaters for being tough, no-nonsense and durable. The Super C A4 pannier, specifically designed — as its name implies — to take A4 files and similarly shaped objects, certainly lives up to that.
As with everything in Carradice's Super C range, it's made from cotton duck, a traditional heavy, waterproof waxed cotton fabric. Cotton duck is incredibly hard-wearing and will keep your stuff dry for decades to come. It can be repaired easily by stitching or gluing, and can be reproofed with reproofing wax. It also gives Carradice bags an idiosyncratic retro look.
The pannier is shaped to take A4 files, and does so well.
Is it a pannier or is it a rucksack? The first thing you notice about the Ortlieb Vario is that it’s got all sorts of complicated looking bits and pieces attached to it.
Setting these aside for the time being, it’s a well made and sturdy fully waterproof pannier style bag with an effective and simple roll-top closure. It fastens securely to a rack with Ortlieb’s standard QL2.1 or QL3 fastenings (anti-theft locks are available as an extra) much as a normal pannier. It’s both left and right side compatible. Ideally sized for commuting, the bag will easily take a 15.4” laptop in protective sleeve as well as a change of clothes, although that’s pretty much the lot.
The main point of difference for the Vario, though, is its ability to transform quickly and easily into a rucksack, making it ideal for extended carrying. A discrete zipped stretch fabric compartment on the front of the bag houses the rucksack harness which simple clips on to eyelets on the back of the bag with sturdy and secure clips, without needing to do anything at all to the clips.
The harness itself is robust and well padded, offering good wear comfort, but is a little tricky to put away again, as the front stretch pocket is quite neat in size.
Keep your eyes peeled and you'll see plenty of Ortlieb's Back Rollers on both commuters and grizzled tourists. There's a reason for their ubiquity: they're bloody good.
The Back Roller Classics take their name from the way they close. They roll up, with a single clip and strap holding them shut. It's basic, but it works very well, the roll prevents water from getting through while allowing enough slack to accommodate larger loads. Total capacity for the pair is 40 litres, which is about as much as you'd want to be carrying.
Where they really score is in the ease of use. The top hooks open and close when you lift the carry handle, which makes attaching and removing them a doddle. The retaining hook at the bottom is easily moved on an elliptical track to suit your rack, as are the top hooks. It's simple and pleasant to use.
The Ortlieb Commuter is a really well-designed bag for those who ride to work. The QL3 system suits this bag brilliantly – easy to use on a bike and with no real compromises once you arrive.
If you've used Ortlieb gear, the construction quality won't come as a surprise; it's beautifully made, in Germany. The fabric used is a PU-laminated Cordura which manages the neat trick of being tough, waterproof and looking really good at the same time. It's not wipe-clean in the same way as tarpaulin, but dried mud brushes off easily.
The main advantage of Ortlieb's QL3 system is that the back of the pannier is flat, with no protruding hooks, so it's much better-suited for carrying off the bike. This is possible as there's an extra bracket which stays fixed to the rack, and the sticky-out bits are on that bracket – two at the top and one below – fitting easily into matching slots on the back of the pannier.
Agu's X-Rain 850 panniers are pretty serious panniers, comparable with the best that Ortlieb has to offer. You get what you pay for as these are impressively waterproof. The fabric is completely impermeable, with fully watertight seams, and the roll-top closure means that no moisture will get into the main compartment.
There's a tidy Rixen and Kaul Klickfix widget to keep it on the rack: pull the string and the two hooks open up so you can lift the bag off the rack. Simple.
And now for something completely different
Tailfin's unique carbon fibre rack and matching panniers are ultra-light and can be fitted to pretty much any bike. It's a pricey setup, but makes a real difference if you ride with luggage a lot. The rack weighs 350g, and the pannier is 650g – or 800g if you include the removable pocket insert. The rack is the expensive bit; the prices above are for a set with one or two panniers, so the bags aren't unreasonable for top-quality lightweight luggage.
You can buy the rack on its own, likewise the panniers, as they'll work with other bags and other racks, but there's no doubt that they are best when used together. The combination saves a useful amount of weight over the competition, but the main advantages are the rock-solid, zero-rattle stability of pannier mounting and the simple, elegant, tool-free attachment to just about any bike, rack mounts or no.
In use, the weight difference is significant, sure but the main difference is the absolute solidity with which the pannier and its contents are held in place. There are no rattles when you ride over broken tarmac. Stand up and swing the bike on a climb and you don't have the sensation of the pannier moving independently of the bike. If you need to put panniers on a top-quality bike and want it to still ride like it cost a hefty four-figure sum, this is the way to go.
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Our official grumpy Northerner, John has been riding bikes for over 30 years since discovering as an uncoordinated teen that a sport could be fun if it didn't require you to catch a ball or get in the way of a hulking prop forward.
Road touring was followed by mountain biking and a career racing in the mud that was as brief as it was unsuccessful.
Somewhere along the line came the discovery that he could string a few words together, followed by the even more remarkable discovery that people were mug enough to pay for this rather than expecting him to do an honest day's work. He's pretty certain he's worked for even more bike publications than Mat Brett.
The inevitable 30-something MAMIL transition saw him shift to skinny tyres and these days he lives in Cambridge where the lack of hills is more than made up for by the headwinds.